LuxCarta Newsletter
 
Newsletter
 
Volume 2, Issue 2
 
We get questions from prospects and customers every day about our products, processes and industry. It's not surprising that most of the questions we receive are related to geographic information systems (GIS) given that many of our customers are experts in RF propagation. A few years ago, we undertook our first article related to Questions to Ask Before a Geodata Purchase. With many new questions, it's time for a new version. See below for more details.

Did we miss your question? Ideas for an article for the next newsletter? As always, we welcome your feedback. We hope you enjoy this edition of the newsletter.
Frequently Asked Questions
How do you define map accuracy? How to define the accuracy in my RFQ?
There are two main types of accuracy: absolute and relative (positional) accuracy. Absolute accuracy refers to the degree to which a map object matches its real world position, within an absolute spatial or projected coordinate system. It is usually expressed in map units (+ or -) depending on scale from the true position of the object in latitude and longitude on the surface of the Earth.
Relative accuracy measures how objects are positioned relative to each other; it is a measure of the maximum positional error allowed. For example: the distance measured between two roadway centerlines must be within a certain relative accuracy, usually expressed as (+ or -) meters.
The standard way to test accuracy is by calculating the Root Mean Square Estimate (RMSE). Root Mean Square Error is a statistical measure of the difference between the predicted location of a pixel and the value actually observed. By employing this test we confirm that our map products are within the map accuracy tolerance described below.

LuxCarta Mapping Accuracy Guidelines

City Planner - 3D

Spatial Resolution 1-5m
Planimetric Accuracy (x,y) 0.5-5m
Altimetric Accuracy (z) Up to 4m
Minimum Mapping Unit 5m x 5m

Urban Planner 2.5D

Spatial Resolution 5-10m
Planimetric Accuracy (x,y) 1.5-5m
Altimetric Accuracy (z) Up to 20m
Minimum Mapping Unit 10m x 10m to 20m x 20m

Urban Planner

Spatial Resolution 5-20m
Planimetric Accuracy (x,y) Up to 10m
Altimetric Accuracy (z) 5-10m
Minimum Mapping Unit 15m x 15m to 60m x 60m

Region Planner

Spatial Resolution 20-50m
Planimetric Accuracy (x,y) Up to 15m
Altimetric Accuracy (z) 5-20m
Minimum Mapping Unit 60m x 60m to 150m x 150m
What is a minimum mapping unit and why is it important?
Scale affects resolution. In a larger-scale map, the resolution of features more closely matches real-world features. In a smaller-scale map, the map resolution diminishes because features must be smoothed and simplified, or not shown at all.
This is described as the minimum mapping unit (MMU). The MMU is the smallest area within a specific clutter class or building polygon remaining visible in the delivered product. In the City Planner product @ 5m resolution, the MMU is 5x5m or 25m2. A rooftop element (e.g., top of an elevator shaft) smaller than 25m2 will not be visible in the layer.
Can you define some of the key words that get frequently used?
3D Buildings — Derived from stereo satellite and aerial imagery, these models provide orthorectified high-resolution accuracy and are the cornerstone of successful urban model development and related RF planning

2.5D Clutter Heights — A per-pixel representation of the height ranges of each 2.5D clutter type

Orthoimage — A high-resolution image tied to the data set to simplify the use of the geodata compared to the real world

Vectors — These can represent a number of different elements including roads, rivers, coastlines, etc. and are fully geo-referenced

Clutter — LuxCarta offers a range of statistically categorized classes (e.g., forest, urban, etc.) that are useful for traffic planning and prediction model creation in RF planning tools

DTM — Better known by the acronym, digital terrain models (DTM) provide a 3D model of the surface of the Earth and are a core layer in all LuxCarta data sets

DEM — digital elevation models — is the same as a digital terrain model

DHM — digital height models — include impression of buildings, elevated highways and bridges

DSM — digital surface models — represent the ground and above ground features including vegetation and man-made features
How is each layer in geodata utilized in RF planning and optimization?
Digital Terrain Model
Vertical diffraction over the terrain
  Digital Terrain Model
2D Linear Vectors
Specific coverage targets along the transportation network (highways, etc.)
  2D Linear Vectors
Clutter
Signal attenuation per class (Kc)
  Clutter
Orthoimage
Visualization
  Orthoimage
Clutter Heights
Vertical diffraction over the buildings
  Clutter Heights
3D Building Vectors
Vertical diffraction over the buildings and horizontal diffraction and reflection on the walls
  3D Building Vectors
How often is necessary to update my data?
This is a tricky question. We recommend new geodata be acquired in the following scenarios: before deploying new technologies (i.e., LTE), updating frequencies or investing in model calibration. Other drivers could include network densification (i.e., higher resolution is recommended for small-cell deployments) or updates due to engineers local knowledge of inaccuracies in the existing data.
When buying a 3D model, can I purchase a layer independently?
It's not recommended. The ideal situation is to have all layers at the same resolution derived from similar vintage source data. The largest expense in producing 3D data relates to the dual pairs of satellite imagery — and these would still need to be purchased even for a single layer.
Why does LuxCarta data look different to Googlemaps? Bing Maps™?
The imagery that many free map engines use are derived from different vendors around the world. This data is typically older than the imagery used by LuxCarta to create our geodata. Often in free map viewers, there are gross errors observed (e.g., roads end suddenly or do not match the road location in the next tile) that would not pass LuxCarta's internal quality control processes.
A third reason is the potential misclassification (i.e., human error) of a clutter area as part of our development process. LuxCarta aims to achieve the highest accuracy in the industry, but sometimes mistakes are made.
While I can load 3D data into my RF planning software, what are my options to visualize it?
Some planning software include an export to Google Earth functionality, but we suggest customers look at SpacEyes3D RF Vision. It allows substantially more functionality, including:
  • Visualization of the sites (base stations, site ID) and analysis layers
  • Automatic import of the sites/sectors from the RF tool export (formats XLS, XLSX and XML) * for compatible planning software
  • Remote antenna visualization
  • Antenna orientation (height, azimuth & tilt) inspection
  • Street-level coverage and video fly through
  • Visualization of the 3D simulations per floor and on walls
  • Easy export to open picture and video formats
It is also a cost-effective option for customers needing to view RF software analyses without the desire to actually perform computations.
Recent Projects
3D Projects
Australia
Brisbane
Brisbane, Australia
   Brisbane, Australia
Brazil
Belém
Fortaleza
João Pessoa
Joinville
Maceio
Natal
Niterói
Recife
Ribeirão Preto
Teresina
Vila Velha
Cambodia
Phnom Penh
China
Tianjin
Tianjin, China
   Tianjin, China
Colombia
Bogotá
Santiago de Cali
Pereira
India
Mumbai
Japan
Tokyo
Malaysia
Kuala Lumpur
Maldives
Male
Myanmar
Yangon
Philippines
Manila
Saudi Arabia
Damman
Mecca
Singapore
Singapore
South Korea
Seoul
Trinidad and Tobago
Port of Spain
United Kingdom
London
Ukraine
Kiev
USA
Dallas, TX
Livermore, CA
Vietnam
Dalat
View More   
2D Projects
Angola
Luanda
Australia
Adelaide
Brisbane
Canberra
Perth
Sydney
Azerbaijan
Baku
Bolivia
(whole country)
Brazil
(whole country)
Canada
Alberta (province)
British Columbia (province)
Calgary, AB
Edmonton, AB
Kenora, ON
Manitoba (province)
Montreal, QC
Newfoundland and Labrador (province)
Nova Scotia (province)
Ontario (province)
Ottawa, ON
Quebec (province)
Regina, SK
Saskatchewan (province)
Saskatoon, SK
Greater Sudbury, ON
Thunder Bay, ON
Toronto, ON
Vancouver, BC
Winnipeg, MB
Colombia
(whole country)
Ecuador
(whole country)
Germany
(whole country)
Guam
(whole country)
Indonesia
Balikpapan
Bandung
Banjarmasin
Batam
Denpasar
Jabotabek
Jakarta
Java
Kalimantan
Makassar
Maluku
Medan
Nusa Tenggara
Papua
Sulawesi
Sumatra
Surabaya
West Java
Yogyakarta
Isle of Man
(whole country)
Israel
Tel Aviv
Kuwait
(whole country)
Malaysia
Batu Pahat
Butterworth
Ipoh
Johor Bahru
Kluang
Kota Bharu
Kota Kinabalu
Kuala Terengganu
Kuantan
Kuching
Melaka
Muar
Pagoh
Seremban
Sungai Petani
Maldives
(whole country)
Mexico
Cuernavaca
Culiacán
Guadalajará
León
Mexico City
Pachuca
Puebla
Querétaro
Toluca
Myanmar
Yangon
Nigeria
(whole country)
Panama
(whole country)
Peru
Abancay
Andahuaylas
Huancavelica
Singapore
(whole country)
Thailand
(whole country)
Turks and Caicos Islands
(whole country)
United Kingdom
London
USA
Boulder, CO
Dallas, TX
Denver, CO
Pittsburgh, PA
San Francisco, CA
Yemen
(whole country)
View More   
News & Events
  lte north america  
Meet with us this week at LTE North America
We'll be attending the LTE North America event in Dallas, November 17-19. If you'll be there, let's set up an appointment time.
 
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